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Allicin, a sulfur-containing compound is responsible for its pungent odour and it has been shown to have significant hypoglycemic activity [ 21 ]. S-allyl cystein sulfoxide SACS , the precursor of allicin and garlic oil, is a sulfur containing amino acid, which controlled lipid peroxidation better than glibenclamide and insulin. It also improved diabetic conditions. SACS also stimulated in vitro insulin secretion from beta cells isolated from normal rats [ 24 ]. Apart from this, Allium sativum exhibits antimicrobial, anticancer and cardioprotective activities.

Aloe, a popular houseplant, has a long history as a multipurpose folk remedy. The plant can be separated into two basic products: gel and latex. Extracts of aloe gum effectively increases glucose tolerance in both normal and diabetic rats [ 25 ]. Treatment of chronic but not single dose of exudates of Aloe barbadensis leaves showed hypoglycemic effect in alloxanized diabetic rats. Single as well as chronic doses of bitter principle of the same plant also showed hypoglycemic effect in diabetic rats.

This plant also has an anti-inflammatory activity in a dose dependent manner and improves wound healing in diabetic mice [ 27 ].

The role of medicinal plants in the treatment of diabetes: a systematic review

Hydroalcoholic extracts of this plant showed anti-hyperglycemic activity in streptozotocin treated rats and this effect is because of increase in glucose uptake and glycogen deposition in isolated rat hemidiaphragm [ 28 , 29 ]. Apart from having anti-diabetic activity, this plant also has anti-bacterial, antimalarial, antifertility, hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects [ 30 ]. Caesalpinia bonducella is widely distributed throughout the coastal region of India and used ethnically by the tribal people of India for controlling blood sugar. Both the aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed potent hypoglycemic activity in chronic type II diabetic models.

These extracts also increased glycogenesis thereby increasing liver glycogen content [ 31 ]. The antihyperglycemic action of the seed extracts may be due to the blocking of glucose absorption. The drug has the potential to act as antidiabetic as well as antihyperlipidemic [ 33 ]. This is found throughout India, especially in dry areas. This extract also reduced alloxan induced lipid peroxidation significantly in erythrocytes, kidney and heart.

Dried extracts of Coccinia indica C. These extracts restored the activities of enzyme lipoprotein lipase LPL that was reduced and glucosephosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase, which were raised in untreated diabetics [ 36 ]. In India decoction of kernels of Eugenia jambolana is used as household remedy for diabetes. This also forms a major constituent of many herbal formulations for diabetes. Antihyperglycemic effect of aqueous and alcoholic extract as well as lyophilized powder shows reduction in blood glucose level.

Pharmacology - DRUGS FOR DIABETES (MADE EASY)

This varies with different level of diabetes. The extract of jamun pulp showed the hypoglycemic activity in streptozotocin induced diabetic mice within 30 min of administration while the seed of the same fruit required 24 h. The oral administration of the extract resulted in increase in serum insulin levels in diabetic rats.

Insulin secretion was found to be stimulated on incubation of plant extract with isolated islets of Langerhans from normal as well as diabetic animals. These extracts also inhibited insulinase activity from liver and kidney [ 37 ]. The leaves of this plant are used as an antidiabetic agent in Nigerian folk medicine, although when aqueous extract given orally did not alter blood glucose level in either normoglycemic or streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

However, antidiabetic activity was seen when the extract and glucose were administered simultaneously and also when the extract was given to the rats 60 min before the glucose. The results indicate that aqueous extract of Mangifera indica possess hypoglycemic activity. This may be due to an intestinal reduction of the absorption of glucose [ 38 ]. Momordica charantia is commonly used as an antidiabetic and antihyperglycemic agent in India as well as other Asian countries.

Extracts of fruit pulp, seed, leaves and whole plant was shown to have hypoglycemic effect in various animal models. Polypeptide p, isolated from fruit, seeds and tissues of M. Ethanolic extracts of M. This may be because of inhibition of glucosephosphatase besides fructose-1, 6-biphosphatase in the liver and stimulation of hepatic glucosephosphate dehydrogenase activities [ 40 ].

It is commonly known as Tulsi. Since ancient times, this plant is known for its medicinal properties. The aqueous extract of leaves of Ocimum sanctum showed the significant reduction in blood sugar level in both normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats [ 41 ]. Significant reduction in fasting blood glucose, uronic acid, total amino acid, total cholesterol, triglyceride and total lipid indicated the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of tulsi in diabetic rats [ 42 ]. This plant also showed antiasthemitic, antistress, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antitumor, gastric antiulcer activity, antioxidant, antimutagenic and immunostimulant activities.

It is a herb of height up to 60 cm, from family Euphorbiaceae. It is commonly known as Bhuiamala. It is scattered throughout the hotter parts of India, mainly Deccan, Konkan and south Indian states. Traditionally it is used in diabetes therapeutics. Methanolic extract of Phyllanthus amarus was found to have potent antioxidant activity. This extract also reduced the blood sugar in alloxanized diabetic rats [ 44 ].

The plant also shows antiinflammatory, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, antidiarrhoeal activity. It is a deciduous moderate to large tree found in India mainly in hilly region. Pterostilbene, a constituent derived from wood of this plant caused hypoglycemia in dogs [ 45 , 46 ] showed that the hypoglycemic activity of this extract is because of presence of tannates in the extract. Flavonoid fraction from Pterocarpus marsupium has been shown to cause pancreatic beta cell regranulation [ 47 ]. Marsupin, pterosupin and liquiritigenin obtained from this plant showed antihyperlipidemic activity [ 48 ].

It is found all over India and the fenugreek seeds are usually used as one of the major constituents of Indian spices. Administration of fenugreek seeds also improved glucose metabolism and normalized creatinine kinase activity in heart, skeletal muscle and liver of diabetic rats. This plant also shows antioxidant activity [ 53 , 54 ]. It is a large, glabrous, deciduous climbing shrub belonging to the family Menispermaceae.

It is widely distributed throughout India and commonly known as Guduchi. Oral administration of the extract of Tinospora cordifolia T. The extract also prevented a decrease in body weight. Oral administration of an aqueous T. It is reported that the daily administration of either alcoholic or aqueous extract of T. It has antioxidant properties and protects B cells from oxidative stress.

It exerts an insulin like action by reducing the glycated haemoglobin levels, normalizing the microalbuminurea and modulating the lipid profile. It minimizes long term diabetic complications.

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Epinsulin marketed by Swastik formulations, contains epicatechin, a benzopyran, as an active principle. Epicatechin increases the cAMP content of the islet, which is associated with increased insulin release. It plays a role in the conversion of proinsulin to insulin by increasing cathepsin activity. It corrects the neuropathy, retinopathy and disturbed metabolism of glucose and lipids. It maintains the integrity of all organ systems affected by the disease. It is advised along with existing oral hypoglycemic drugs. And is known to prevent diabetic complication.

It has gentle hypoglycemic activity and hence induces no risk of being hypoglycemic. Pancreatic Tonic ayurvedic herbal supplement : Pancreas Tonic is a botanical mixture of traditional Indian Ayurvedic herbs currently available as a dietary supplement. Bitter gourd powder marketed by Garry and Sun. Bitter Gourd has excellent medicinal virtues.

It is antidotal, antipyretic tonic, appetizing, stomachic, antibilious and laxative. The bitter Gourd is also used in native medicines of Asia and Africa. The Bitter gourd is specifically used as a folk medicine for diabetes. It contains compounds like bitter glycosides, saponins, alkaloids, reducing sugars, phenolics, oils, free acids, polypeptides, sterols, amino acids including methionine and a crystalline product named p-insulin. It is reported to have hypoglycemic activity in addition to being antihaemorrhoidal, astringent, stomachic, emmenagogue, hepatic stimulant, anthelmintic and blood purifier.

Dia-Care manufactured by Admark Herbals Ltd. Persons taking insulin will eventually be liberated from the dependence on it. The whole treatment completes in 6 phases, each phase being of 90 days. Only the water and not the sediment must be taken in the morning on empty stomach. To the remaining medicine fresh water is added and kept for the whole day and is consumed half an hour before dinner.

The taste of the drug is very bitter. It is a pure herbal formula without any side effects. Gurmar powder manufactured by Garry and Sun is an anti-diabetic drug, which suppresses the intestinal absorption of sacharides, which prevents blood sugar fluctuations. It also correlates the metabolic activities of liver, kidney and muscles. Gurmar stimulates insulin secretion and has blood sugar reducing properties. It blocks sweet taste receptors when applied to tongue in diabetes to remove glycosuria.

It deadens taste of sweets and bitter things like quinine effects lasts for 1 to 2 hours. Besides having these properties, it is a cardiac stimulant and diuretic and corrects metabolic activities of liver, kidney and muscles. DIABETA, a formulation of Ayurvedic Cure, available in the capsule form is an anti-diabetic with combination of proven anti-diabetic fortified with potent immunomodulators, antihyperlipidemics, anti-stress and hepatoprotective of plant origin.

The formulation of Diabeta is based on ancient ayurvedic references, further corroborated through modern research and clinical trials. Diabeta acts on different sites in differing ways to effectively control factors and pathways leading to diabetes mellitus. It attacks the various factors, which precipitate the diabetic condition, and corrects the degenerative complications, which result because of diabetes. Diabeta is safe and effective in managing Diabetes Mellitus as a single agent supplement to synthetic anti-diabetic drugs.

Diabeta helps overcome resistance to oral hypoglycemic drugs when used as adjuvant to cases of uncontrolled diabetes. Diabeta confers a sense of well -being in patients and promotes symptomatic relief of complaints like weakness giddiness, pain in legs, body ache, polyuria and pruritis. Syndrex manufactured by Plethico Laboratory contains extracts of germinated fenugreek seed. Fenugreek is used as an ingredient of traditional formulations over years.

We are currently studying the mechanism of this antidiabetic drug using animal model on one hand and cultured islet cells on the other. Thus many different plants have been used individually or in formulations for treatment of diabetes and its complications. One of the major problems with this herbal formulation is that the active ingredients are not well defined. It is important to know the active component and their molecular interaction, which will help to analyse therapeutic efficacy of the product and also to standardize the product. Efforts are now being made to investigate mechanism of action of some of these plants using model systems.

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. J Clin Biochem Nutr. Published online Apr Thomas Paul A. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Sep 19; Accepted Dec 6. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

Keywords: medicinal plant, India, antidiabetic, antioxidant, diabetes. Introduction In the last few years there has been an exponential growth in the field of herbal medicine and these drugs are gaining popularity both in developing and developed countries because of their natural origin and less side effects.

Diabetes and Significance Diabetes is a chronic disorder of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism characterized by increased fasting and post prandial blood sugar levels. Indian Medicinal Plants with Antidiabetic and Related Beneficial Effects There are many herbal remedies suggested for diabetes and diabetic complications. Dose dependent hypoglycemic activity [ 79 , 80 ] Ficus bengalenesis Bur Hypoglycemic, antioxidant [ 81 ] Gymnema sylvestre Gudmar or Merasingi Anti-hyperglycemic effect, hypolipidemic [ 82 , 83 ] Hemidesmus indicus Anantamul Anti snake venom activity, anti-inflammatory [ 84 ] Hibiscus rosa-sinesis Gudhal or Jasson Initiates insulin release from pancreatic beta cells [ 85 ] Ipomoea batatas Sakkargand Reduces insulin resistance [ 86 ] Momordica cymbalaria Kadavanchi Hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic [ 87 , 88 ] Murraya koenigii Curry patta Hypoglycemic, increases glycogenesis and decreases gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis [ 89 ] Musa sapientum Banana Antihyperglycemic, antioxidant [ 90 — 92 ].

Phaseolus vulgaris Hulga, white kidney bean Hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, inhibit alpha amylase activity, antioxidant. Open in a separate window. Acacia arabica: Babhul It is found all over India mainly in the wild habitat. Aegle marmelos: Bengal Quince, Bel or Bilva Administration of aqueous extract of leaves improves digestion and reduces blood sugar and urea, serum cholesterol in alloxanized rats as compared to control.

Allium cepa: onion Various ether soluble fractions as well as insoluble fractions of dried onion powder show anti-hyperglycemic activity in diabetic rabbits. Allium sativum: garlic This is a perennial herb cultivated throughout India. Aloe vera and Aloe barbadensis Aloe, a popular houseplant, has a long history as a multipurpose folk remedy. Azadirachta indica: Neem Hydroalcoholic extracts of this plant showed anti-hyperglycemic activity in streptozotocin treated rats and this effect is because of increase in glucose uptake and glycogen deposition in isolated rat hemidiaphragm [ 28 , 29 ].

Caesalpinia bonducella Caesalpinia bonducella is widely distributed throughout the coastal region of India and used ethnically by the tribal people of India for controlling blood sugar. Capparis decidua This is found throughout India, especially in dry areas. Coccinia indica Dried extracts of Coccinia indica C.

Eugenia jambolana: Indian gooseberry, jamun In India decoction of kernels of Eugenia jambolana is used as household remedy for diabetes. Mangifera indica : Mango The leaves of this plant are used as an antidiabetic agent in Nigerian folk medicine, although when aqueous extract given orally did not alter blood glucose level in either normoglycemic or streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Momordica charantia: bitter gourd Momordica charantia is commonly used as an antidiabetic and antihyperglycemic agent in India as well as other Asian countries.

Ocimum sanctum: holy basil It is commonly known as Tulsi. Phyllanthus amarus: bhuiawala It is a herb of height up to 60 cm, from family Euphorbiaceae. Pterocarpus marsupium: It is a deciduous moderate to large tree found in India mainly in hilly region. Trigonella foenum graecum: fenugreek It is found all over India and the fenugreek seeds are usually used as one of the major constituents of Indian spices. Tinospora cordifolia: Guduchi It is a large, glabrous, deciduous climbing shrub belonging to the family Menispermaceae.

References 1. Grover J. Medicinal plants of India with antidiabetic potential. Scartezzini P. Review on some plants of Indian traditional medicine with antioxidant activity. Seth S. Medicinal plants of India. Indian J. Ramachandran A. Burden of type 2 diabetes and its complications- the Indian scenario. Matteucci E. Oxidative stress in families of type 1 diabetic patients.


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Diabetes Care. Oberlay L. Free radicals and diabetes. Free Radic.

Supplementary files

Baynes J. The role of oxidative stress in diabetic complications. Lipinski B. Pathophysiology of oxidative stress in diabetes mellitus. Kubish H. Naziroglu M. Protective role of intraperitoneally administered vitamin E and selenium on the oxidative defense mechanisms in rats with diabetes induced by streptozotocin. Stress Elem. Glugliano D. Oxidative stress and diabetic vascular complications. Brownlee M. Advanced protein glycosylation in diabetes in diabetes and ageing. Elgawish A. Involvement of hydrogen peroxide in collagen cross-linking by high glucose in vitro and in vivo.

Dey L. Alternative therapies for type 2 diabetes.

Indian Herbs and Herbal Drugs Used for the Treatment of Diabetes

Alternative Med. Dixit P. In: Antidiabetic and related beneficial properties of Indian medicinal plants, in Herbal Drug Research- A twenty first century perspective. Sharma R. Jaypee brothers medical publishers New Delhi, India Limited; Wadood A. Effects of Acacia arabica and Caralluma edulis on blood glucose levels on normal and alloxan diabetic rabbits. Pakistan Med. Karunanayake E. Oral hypoglycemic activity of some medicinal plants of Sri Lanka.

Roman-Ramos R. Antihyperglycemic effect of some edible plants. Kumari K. Antidiabetic and hypolipidaemic effects of S-methyl cysteine sulfoxide, isolated from Allium cepa Linn. Mathew P. Hypoglycemic effects of onion, Allium cepa Linn. Sheela C. Antidiabetic effects of S-allyl cysteine sulphoxide isolated from garlic Allium sativum Linn.

Bever B. Plants with oral hypoglycemic action. Crude Drug Res. Zacharias N. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidaemic effects of garlic in sucrose fed rabbits. Augusti K. Antiperoxide effect of S-allyl cysteine sulfoxide, an insulin secretagogue in diabetic rats. Al-Awadi F. Studies on the activity of individual plants of an antidiabetic plant mixture. Acta Diabetologica. Ajabnoor M. Effect of aloes on blood glucose levels in normal and alloxan diabetic mice. Davis R. Aloe vera and gibberellins, Anti-inflammatory activity in diabetes. Chattopadhyay R.

Preliminary report on antihyperglycemic effect of fraction of fresh leaves of Azadiracta indica Beng neem Bull. The effect of fresh leaves of Azadiracta indica on glucose uptake and glycogen content in the isolated rat hemidiaphragm. Biswas K. Biological activities and medicinal properties of neem Azadiracta indica Curr.

Chakrabarti S. Advanced studies on the hypoglycemic effect of Caesalpinia bonducella F. Sharma S. Hypoglycemic, antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of Caesalpinia bonducella seeds in rats. Kannur D. Antidiabetic activity of Caesalpinia bonducella seed extracts in rats. In press.

Traditional Medicines for Modern Times: Antidiabetic Plants, 1st Edition (Paperback) - Routledge

Yadav P. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes and tissues in aged diabetic rats. Agarwal V. A study on composition and hypolipidemic effect of dietary fiber from some plant foods.


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Plant Foods Human Nutr. Kamble S. Influence of Coccinia indica on certain enzymes in glycolytic and lipolytic pathway in human diabetes. New Book. Shipped from UK. Established seller since Seller Inventory F Ships with Tracking Number! Buy with confidence, excellent customer service!.

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